Andreas Stefik, Ph.D.

Assistant Professor of Computer Science at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas


My research is is in the areas of Software Engineering, Accessibilty, and Computer Science Education, broadly construed. While these are the areas, I spend much of my time thinking about a problem in computer science sometimes called 'the programming language wars.' At its core, this problem is related to the observation that many programming languages and their related artifacts (e.g., curricula, tools) vary in significant ways. While these variations are likely considered small by some, at the societal level, they have contributed to a significant fracturing in the way people invent, and learn how to invent, software. Below is a past the paywall 2-page summary sheet of what the community knows about the language wars, so far. Past that, is the usual list of scholarly publications, grants, and the like.

Summary Sheet on the Language Wars

Academic Papers

  1. Phillip Merlin Uesbeck, Andreas Stefik, Stefan Hanenberg, Jan Pedersen, and Patrick Daleiden. 2016. An empirical study on the impact of C++ lambdas and programmer experience. In Proceedings of the 38th International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE '16). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 760-771.
  2. Brad A. Myers, Andreas Stefik, Stefan Hanenberg, Antti-Juhani Kaijanaho, Margaret Burnett, Franklyn Turbak, and Philip Wadler. 2016. Usability of Programming Languages: Special Interest Group (SIG) Meeting at CHI 2016. In Proceedings of the 2016 CHI Conference Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI EA '16). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 1104-1107.
  3. Amber Wagner, Jeff Gray, Daniela Marghitu, and Andreas Stefik. 2016. Raising the Awareness of Accessibility Needs in Block Languages (Abstract Only). In Proceedings of the 47th ACM Technical Symposium on Computing Science Education (SIGCSE '16). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 497-497. DOI=
  4. Richard E. Ladner, Brianna Blaser, Andreas Stefik, and Daniela Marghitu. 2016. Universal Access to Computing Education (Abstract Only). In Proceedings of the 47th ACM Technical Symposium on Computing Science Education (SIGCSE '16). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 701-701. DOI=
  5. Stefan Hanenberg and Andreas Stefik. 2015. On the need to define community agreements for controlled experiments with human subjects: a discussion paper. In Proceedings of the 6th Workshop on Evaluation and Usability of Programming Languages and Tools (PLATEAU 2015). A CM, New York, NY, USA, 61-67
  6. Igor Crk, Timothy Kluthe, and Andreas Stefik. 2015. Understanding Programming Expertise: An Empirical Study of Phasic Brain Wave Changes. ACM Trans. Comput.-Hum. Interact. 23, 1, Article 2 (December 2015), 29 pages.
  7. Design Principles for Visual Displays. Antonio Gutierrez, Gregory Schraw, Andreas Stefik. Use of Visual Displays in Research and Testing: Coding, Interpreting, and Reporting Data. Edited by Matthew McCrudden, Gregory Schraw ,Chad Buckendahl. Information Age Publishing, Inc. Charlotte, NC. 2015. (Book Chapter)
  8. Comparing Development Approaches and Reuse Strategies: An Empirical Evaluation of Developer Views from the Aerospace Industry. Julia Varnell-Sarjeant, Anneliese Amschler Andrews, Joe Lucente, Andreas Stefik. Information and Software Technology. 2015.
  9. Andreas Stefik and Stefan Hanenberg. 2014. The Programming Language Wars: Questions and Responsibilities for the Programming Language Community. In Proceedings of the 2014 ACM International Symposium on New Ideas, New Paradigms, and Reflections on Programming & Software (Onward! 2014). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 283-299.
  10. J. B. Pedersen, A. Stefik. Towards Millions of Processes on the JVM, Proceedings of Communicating Process Architectures (CPA'14), Oxford, United Kingdom, August, 2014.
  11. Julia Varnell-Sarjeant, Anneliese Andrews and Andreas Stefik. Comparing Reuse Strategies: An Empirical Evaluation of Developer Views. IEEE 38th Annual International Computers, Software & Applications Conference. (COMPSAC 2014). Vasteras, Sweden.
  12. Andreas Stefik, Stefan Hanenberg, Mark McKenney, Anneliese Andrews, Srinivas Kalyan Yellanki, and Susanna Siebert. 2014. What is the foundation of evidence of human factors decisions in language design? an empirical study on programming language workshops. In Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on Program Comprehension (ICPC 2014). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 223-231.
  13. Stefan Endrikat, Stefan Hanenberg, Romain Robbes, and Andreas Stefik. 2014. How do API documentation and static typing affect API usability?. In Proceedings of the 36th International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE 2014). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 632-642.
  14. Stefan Hanenberg, Sebastian Kleinschmager, Romain Robbes, Éric Tanter, Andreas Stefik. An empirical study on the impact of static typing on software maintainability. Empirical Software Engineering. 2013.
  15. Andreas Stefik and Susanna Siebert. 2013. An Empirical Investigation into Programming Language Syntax. ACM Transactions on Computing Education 13, 4, Article 19 (November 2013), 40 pages.
  16. Per Runeson, Andreas Stefik & Anneliese Andrews. Variation factors in the design and analysis of replicated controlled experiments. Empirical Software Engineering. 2013.
  17. Clemens Mayer, Stefan Hanenberg, Romain Robbes, Éric Tanter, and Andreas Stefik. 2012. An empirical study of the influence of static type systems on the usability of undocumented software. SIGPLAN Not. 47, 10 (October 2012), 683-702.
  18. Sebastian Kleinschmager, Stefan Hanenberg, Romain Robbes, Éric Tanter, and Andreas Stefik, Do static type systems improve the maintainability of software systems? An empirical study, Program Comprehension (ICPC), 2012 IEEE 20th International Conference on, pp.153-162, 11-13 June 2012.
  19. Andreas Stefik, Susanna Siebert, Melissa Stefik, Kim Slattery. An Empirical Comparison of the Accuracy Rates of Novices using the Quorum, Perl, and Randomo Programming Languages. Workshop on the Evaluation and Usability of Programming Languages and Tools (PLATEAU 2011). Portland, OR, October 24th, 2011.
  20. Per Runeson, Andreas Stefik, Anneliese Andrews, Sam Gronblom, Ivan Porres, and Susanna Siebert. A Comparative Analysis of Three Replicated Experiments Comparing Inspection and Unit Testing. The 2nd International Workshop on Replication in Empirical Software Engineering Research. Banff, Alberta, C anada, September 21st, 2011.
  21. Andreas Stefik, Susanna Siebert, Kim Slattery, Melissa Stefik. Toward Intuitive Programming Languages. IEEE 19th International Conference on Program Comprehension (ICPC), 2011, pp.213-214, 22-24 June 2011.
  22. A. Stefik, C. Hundhausen, R. Patterson. An Empirical Investigation into the Design of Auditory Cues to Enhance Computer Program Comprehension. The International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 69 (2011) 820-838.
  23. A. Stefik, K.Slattery, S. Siebert. Speaking in Code. Video in the 42nd ACM technical symposium on Computer science education, 2011.
  24. A. Stefik, C. Hundhausen, D. Smith. On the Design of an Educational Infrastructure for the Blind and Visually Impaired in Computer Science. Proceedings of the 42nd ACM technical symposium on Computer science education, 2011.
  25. A. Stefik and E. Gellenbeck. Empirical studies on programming language stimuli. Software Quality Journal, 19(1):65-99, 2011. 10.1007/s11219-010-9106-7.
  26. Roger T. Alexander, Jeff Offutt, Andreas Stefik: Testing coupling relationships in object-oriented programs. Software Testing, Verification and Reliability Volume 20 (4) pp. 291-327, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, December 2010.
  27. E. Gellenbeck and A. Stefik. Evaluating prosodic cues as a means to disambiguate algebraic expressions: an empirical study. In Assets ’09: Proceedings of the 11th international ACM SIGACCESS conference on Computers and accessibility, pages 139–146, New York, NY, USA, 2009. ACM.
  28. Patterson, R., Tripp, L., Rogers, J., Boydstun, A., and Stefik, A. Modeling the simulated real-world optic flow motion aftereffect, 2009. Journal of the Optical Society of America A 26, 1202-1211 (2009).
  29. Stefik, A., Gellenbeck, E., 2009. Using Spoken Text to Aid Debugging: An Empirical Study. In Proceedings of the 17th international Conference on Program Comprehension (Icpc 09) (May 17 - 19, 2009). IEEE Computer Society, Vancouver, B.C. Canada.
  30. Stefik, A., Haywood, A., Mansoor, S., Dunda, B., and Garcia, D., 2009. SODBeans. In Proceedings of the 17th international Conference on Program Comprehension (Icpc 09) (May 17 - 19, 2009). IEEE Computer Society, Vancouver, B.C. Canada.
  31. Patterson, R., Rogers, J., Boydstun, A., Tripp, L., and Stefik, A. System dynamics modeling of the optic flow motion aftereffect. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Vision Sciences Society, Naples, FL., May 13, 2008.
  32. Stefik, A., Alexander, R., Patterson, R. and Brown, J. 2007. WAD: A Feasibility study using the Wicked Audio Debugger. In Proceedings of the 15th IEEE international Conference on Program Comprehension (Icpc'07) (June 26 - 29, 2007).IEEE Computer Society, Banff, Canada.
  33. Andreas Stefik, Melissa Stefik, Mark Curtiss : Ammmp: An Automatic Translation System for Musical Languages. Computer Music Journal, 31(4), 2007.
  34. Andreas Stefik, Kelly Fitz, Roger Alexander: Increasing Fault Detection Effectiveness Using Layered Program Auralization. Software Engineering Research and Practice, 2006: 959-965
  35. Stefik, A., Fitz, K., and Alexander, R. 2006. Layered Program Auralization: Using Music to Increase Runtime Program Comprehension and Debugging Effectiveness. In Proceedings of the 14th international Conference on Program Comprehension (Icpc 06) (June 14 - 16, 2006). IEEE Computer Society, Athens, Greece, 89-93.
  36. Andrews, A. A., Stefik, A., Picone, N., and Ghosh, S. 2005. A COTS Component Compre- hension Process. In Proceedings of the 13th international Workshop on Program Comprehension (Icpc 05)(May 15 - 16, 2005). IWPC. IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, 135-144.


  1. National Science Foundation, CE-21 CNS-1440878. Collaborative Research: AccessCS10K: Including Students with Disabilities in Computing Education for the Twenty-First Century. Funded: $474,695
  2. National Science Foundation, CE-21 R.E.U. Supplement CNS-1440878. $16,000
  3. Pacific Foundation for the Blind, $5,400
  4. National Science Foundation, Broadening Participation in Computing CNS-0940521. Collaborative Research: BPC-DP: Building an Educational Infrastructure for Students at K-12 Schools for the Blind to Broaden Participation in Computing. Funded: $592,920 (SIUE: $409,056)
  5. N.S.F. R.E.U. Supplement CNS-1123866 (2011). Funded: $9,499
  6. N.S.F. R.E.U. Supplement CNS-1036408 (2010). Funded: $9,499
  7. AccessComputing (University of Washington), Electronic Tablets & Computer Programming Workshop. Funded: $5,750 (SIUE: $1,560)
  8. AccessComputing (University of Washington), An internship for students with disabilities. Funded: $5,000
  9. U.R.C.A. Program. Funded: $1,000 (Spring 2011)
  10. U.R.C.A. Program. Funded: $800 (Fall 2011)
  11. U.R.C.A. Program. Funded: $800 (Spring 2010)
  12. S.T.E.P. What is the Effect of Blindness on the Ability to use an Auditory Computer Programming Environment? An Empirical Study. Funded: $11,212

Professional Awards

  1. White House Champion of Change, (U.S. White House. Executive Office of the President, 2016)
  2. Outstanding Researcher Award (SIUE, 2012)
  3. Java Innovation Award, also called the Duke Award (Oracle Corporation, 2011)